MODULE ONE

LESSON ONE: INTRODUCTION TO THE AFRICAN CONTINENT AND TO MVP

Overview

This lesson will introduce the continent of Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa, to students. Using the Esri/GenHR map students will learn about the diverse cultures in the fifty-four countries on the continent and how they have contributed to the world. Then they will be introduced specifically to Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and Ethiopia. These are the four countries where the Millennium Villages Projects (MVP) took place and which they will learn about throughout the modules.

An essential element of this opening lesson is to support students in recognizing and overcoming any biases they may have about countries in Africa. They may not realize they have them until they experience these activities. Biases and stereotypes may include:

○      There are no technological advances.

○      The people are poor and only want handouts.

○      There are no cities; it is only wilderness with wild animals.

○      There are many epidemics and most of the people are sick.

○      The continent is full of wars, and genocides rage all over the continent.

The lessons in the modules will counter all of the above stereotypes and offer accurate perspectives on the continent of Africa and it’s countries.

Essential Questions

●      How can I become aware of my biases and stereotypes about the African continent?

●      How can I identify and acknowledge the cultures and resources within the countries in Africa?

●      What do each of the countries contribute to the rest of the world?

Common Core Learning Standards

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.4

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.5

 Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to:

●      Recognize personal biases and stereotypes about the African continent.

●      Acknowledge the cultures and resources within countries in Africa.

●      Identify contributions from Africa within the United States—even in their own communities.

MVP Glossary Board

Africa: The second largest continent; a southward projection of the Old World land mass divided roughly in two by the equator and surrounded by sea except where the Isthmus of Suez joins it to Asia. The United Nations states that there are 54 countries in Africa.

 

  1. Introduction

Share with students that we are going to use our digital map and some personal writing to explore the African continent, most specifically sub-Sahara.

 

II.         Quick MVP Journal Writing Activity (3 min)

Share with students that throughout the program they will each have their own MVP Journal to use in the activities. The journal will contain personal thoughts and reflections and will not be handed in to the teacher.

Start by asking students:  “What comes to your mind when you think of Africa?”

○      Ask students to write down in their journals the first things that come to their minds. They can write in single words using adjectives or in full sentences.

○      Let them know that these are private thoughts and they will be required to share some of those thoughts out loud.

 

LEAD THEM THROUGH THE MAP

 III.        Quick MVP Journal Writing Activity (3 min)

Ask students to write down the first things that come to their mind now when they think of America.

●      Has your perspective on Africa been altered? If so, in what way?

●      Write two new things you have learned about Africa.

●      Write one thing you would like to learn about Africa.

IV. Sharing and Reflection
This will be a whole class activity. Write or project a T-Chart on the board with two columns. Title column one: Stereotype. Title column two: New Perspective.

Have students share their answers for both columns on the class T chart.

 

LESSON TWO:  SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE MVP CLASSROOM PROGRAM                

Time: 45 Minutes

 Overview

This class will set up the foundation for the methodology used throughout the MVP lessons. This will include:

●      Creation of vocabulary definitions for the MVP Glossary Board.

●      Class collaboration to establish the Rules of Engagement.

●      Explanation and significance of the MVP Journals.

Essential Questions

●      How can we create our classroom learning community together?

●      Does our local community have similar issues as the millennium villages in sub-Saharan Africa?

Common Core Learning Standards

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A 

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.B

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D

Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to:

●      Describe the goals of the Millennium Villages Project.

●      Identify sub-Saharan Africa on the map of the African continent.

●      Analyze the attributes that make up the different communities they are a part of, such as classroom community, neighborhood community, etc.

●      As a class, work together to create their classroom Rules of Engagement.

●      Work collaboratively to begin building their class MVP Glossary Board.

 MVP Glossary Board

The class will work together to create their own definitions throughout the lesson. Here are some samples:

Rules of Engagement sample glossary words:

    Respectful: feeling or showing deference and respect.

    Attentive: paying close attention to something.

    Honest: free of deceit and untruthfulness; sincere.

    Perspective: a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something; a point of view.

 

Map activity glossary words:

●      Sub-Saharan Africa: is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the UN, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara.

●      Millennium Villages Project: addresses the root causes of extreme poverty, taking a community-led approach to sustainable development in villages in sub-Sahara Africa.

●      Community: a group of people who live in a common geographic area, and or share common values or beliefs.

 

Materials for Instructor:

    White board, black board, flip chart or jumbo sized Post-Its.

●      Esri/GenHR map of sub-Sahara Africa

Materials for Students:

     MVP Journals

Room Set-Up

Be prepared to break into working groups comprised of 3-4 students.

 

I. Intro to Millennium Villages Project (10 min)-

We will introduce MVP through our digital map :

Share with students:

We will learn about the Millennium Villages Project. The goal of the project was to take a community-led approach to empower communities in sub-Sahara Africa to become part of the solution to ending their own poverty issues.

●      The Millennium Villages Project united science, business, civil society and government in addressing quality of life issues, such as health, education, and job opportunities to address the root causes of poverty.

●      Through lessons that incorporate photography, films, and maps we will gain an in-depth understanding of MVP’s work.

LEAD them through our digital map:

The map will go from a macro view of the African continent to sub-Sahara Africa and then to each of the countries we are focused on: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Senegal, and Ghana. And then, getting micro within each country, we can go to each of the MVP villages, which can include two photos and possibly some quotes.

●      The macro view will include the African continent and then zoom to sub-Sahara Africa. 

●      The map will show the history of MVP. For example, MVP was solidly off the ground by 2005 with two pilot communities—one in Sauri in western Kenya, the other in the arid wastes of northern Ethiopia. Over the next year, eight more countries (and twelve more sites) became part of the project, each one representing a different climatic and geological zone.

●      The map will highlight each of the countries we are focused on in the curriculum: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Senegal, and Ghana. 

●      The map will zoom into each country to our four MVP villages of focus and will include two photos of each village and possibly some quotes.

 

INTRODUCE MVP, AND THEY WILL SEE THE FOUR COUNTRIES AND EACH OF THEIR VILLAGES

 

    II.         Quick MVP Journal Writing Activity (5 min.)

Ask students to take out their MVP Journals, to reflect and write about what they have just seen and heard from the map activity. They can include any questions they are hoping to learn the answers to as the program continues. Explain that their MVP Journals are for their private reflections and, although they will be asked to verbally share some of their reflections they have written, the MVP journals will never be collected by the teacher.

 

III. Rules of Engagement (10 min.)

Share with the class that because we will be talking about ‘hot topics’ it is important that everyone’s opinion and voice is heard. So, we need to set up “Rules of Engagement,” which is like a contract to support and protect us all as we enter into sometimes tricky conversations.

On the board write “Rules of Engagement” and ask students to create them. Ask them to consider how they would like to be ‘heard’ by their classmates and how they would like to be ‘spoken to’. Start by writing several examples on the board and then invite students to add to the list.

Target answers - student responses should include or be similar to:

      Be a respectful and attentive listener.

      Use respectful speech.

      Use equal time for “mic” sharing.

      Be honest and have honest intentions.

      Allowing others to keep or change their perspectives.

     Have the intention to create trust and learn from each other, rather than discredit others.

Keep the Rules of Engagement posted and visually accessible throughout the program.

 

III. Create an MVP Glossary Board (7 min.)

The MVP Glossary Board will support the class as they communicate with each other and navigate difficult topics. Although the words in the glossary can be found in the dictionary, it is important that the teacher guides students, as a class, to create their own definitions, even if they slightly differ from standard ones. Over time, they may add to or change their definitions. The MVP Glossary Board will also grow in length with each class.

Decide how to create your classroom MVP Glossary Board. It can be on a learning bulletin board, projected on a smartboard, written on a blackboard, or written on a jumbo Post-It board on an easel. We recommend Jumbo Post-Its because they remain on the walls throughout the program. Lead a conversation with the students and guide them to come to an agreed upon definition for each term. Write the definitions on the MVP Glossary Board and ask one student to compile everything on a shared class online document. (Form dependent on what is used in the classroom, i.e. google docs.)

Start the glossary with four key terms from the rules of engagement. Guide the class to define words they have chosen in the opening discussion. Here are some sample words:

  1. Respectful
  2. Attentive
  3. Honest
  4. Perspective

 IV. Introduce Concept of Community

One of the most important aspects of the MVP project was to support members of the villages in strengthening their communities. Lead a discussion with students about the attributes that make up a community, and then work with the class to define community on the MVP Glossary Board.

Step One

Ask students for examples of what makes up a ‘community’. Write a list of attributes of a community on the board.

Target Answers: Shared Values, Common good, Diversity, etc.

●      Name some examples of different communities that you are a part of

○      Examples may include: Classroom community, sports team or club, neighborhood community, theater community, chess team.

Step Two

Work with class to create a definition of community on the MVP Glossary Board

Target Answer:  A group of people who live in a common geographic area, and or share common values or beliefs.

V. Homework

Ask students to think about what makes up the foundation of a community.

●      Ask them to think about whether or not communities are built upon a respect for human rights.

●      Ask them to think about how they would define human rights and to be prepared to discuss their thoughts on human rights in the next class..

 

LESSON THREE: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 

Overview:
This class enables students to have the basic understanding of human rights that they will need as they investigate the MVP in the upcoming classes. They will learn about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and work with a partner to identify any rights they feel are not being supported in their community or other areas of the world. As a class they will explore the articles further by creating their own articles for the Rights of the Teenager.

Essential Questions

●      Do all human beings have the same rights?

●      And, if so, how is it possible to support each person’s human rights?

Common Core Standards

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.4

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.2

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.9-10.3

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.7

 

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to:

●      Articulate the definition of human rights.

●      Work in partners to identify articles in the UDHR that they feel are not being upheld.

●      Synthesize their knowledge of the UDHR to create their own articles on the Rights of Teenagers.

●      Compare their classroom definitions of the MVP Glossary vocabulary to the accepted definitions.

 

MVP Glossary Board (In this class students will create their definitions but also learn the accepted definitions)

●      Human Rights: The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.

●      Universal Declaration of Human Rights: was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10 , 1948. The UDHR was the first time that countries agreed on a comprehensive statement of inalienable human rights.

 

Materials for Instructor:

    Handouts of Universal Declaration of Human Rights

●      Whiteboard or blackboard for notes

●      Sample of a completed Rights of the Teenager document

 

Materials for Students:

     MVP Journals

 

I. Introduce the concept of Human Rights (10 min.)

 

Step One:

Ask students if they think there are rights for every human being on earth. Ask them to share their definitions of human rights that they have been reflecting on since the last class. Lead them into defining human rights for the MVP Glossary Board.

 

●      After they create their own definition of human rights, share the accepted definition: The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.

○      Ask students to compare the definitions and point out the differences in their definition and the accepted one.

■      Do they feel their definition is missing any key element?

○      Ask students if they would like to rewrite their definition of human rights.

 

Step Two:

●      Explain that In 1948 the United Nations created The Universal Declaration of Human Rights—the first document listing the 30 human rights to which everyone is entitled.

 

II. Exploration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (20-25 min.)

 

Step One:

Ask students to sit with a partner and hand out copies of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Ask students to review the articles and to circle the ones that they do not feel are being recognized in their community or the world.

 

Step Two

Bring the class back together for a whole group discussion. Ask students to share any UDHR articles they circled and explain why they feel that article is not being upheld.

 

Step Three

Ask students if they feel there should be articles specifically for teenagers. Have students work again with their partners and create at least three articles for Right of the TEENAGER.

 

Step Four

Write on the board:  RIGHTS of the TEENAGER

●      Note to teacher: Refer to Rights of Teenager Sample, not to be shared with students.

When they have completed their new articles ask students to raise their hands and share RIGHTS of the TEENAGER and list them on the board under RIGHTS OF THE TEENAGER.

 

III. Homework

Ask students to pay attention to their school community and local community to identify any areas they feel human rights are not being met.

 

 

 

MODULE ONE

Lesson Plan Four: Introduction to the Millennium Villages Project

 

Overview:
In this class students learn about the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and that the Millennium Villages Project (MVP) was created to support the achievement of the eight millennium development goals. This is further explained to students in the Breaking the Poverty Trap film.

 

 

Essential Question

●      Is it possible to ‘support’ a community so they can then ‘support’ themselves?

 

Common Core Standards

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.A 

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.B

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.C

●      CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.D

 

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to:

●      Articulate examples of the MVP community-led approaches to sustainable development in the village of Mayange.

●      Gain a working knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals.

●      Develop a tangible understanding of the potential impact of the Millennium Development Goals being reached or not via a creative writing activity.

 

 

MVP Glossary Board

●      Human Rights: The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.

 

●      Service: The action of helping or doing work for someone.

 

●      Sustainable Development: A way for people to use resources without the resources running out. The term used by the Brundtland Commission defined it as development with sustainability that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."

 

●      Millennium Villages Project (MVP): MVP used an integrated approach to rural development in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It addressed the root causes of extreme poverty, taking a community-led approach to sustainable development in villages in sub-Sahara Africa.

 

●      Millenium Development Goals (MDGs):

The eight international millennium development goals for the year 2015 were established by the United Nations in 2000.  The eight goals had measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world's poorest people by 2015:

 

·       To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

·       To achieve universal primary education.

·       To promote gender equality and empower women.

·       To reduce child mortality.

·       To improve maternal health.

·       To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases.

To ensure environmental sustainability.

·       To develop a global partnership for development.

 

Materials for Instructor:

●      Millennium Development Goals Worksheet

●      Breaking the Poverty Trap film

 

Materials for Students:

●      MVP Journals

 

  1. Discussion (5 mins)

●      Begin the class by checking in with students on their understanding of the UDHR.

○      Read some of the articles and reflect on what they wrote in the last class for the Rights of the Teenager.

 

II.       Introduction to the Millennium Development Goals (10 min.)

Project the definition of the Millennium Development Goals on the board and share them with students. If possible, have students read the MDG out loud.

 

Explain to students that Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) are the eight international millennium development goals for the year 2015, which were established by the United Nations in 2000. The eight goals had measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world's poorest people by 2015:

1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

2. To achieve universal primary education

3. To promote gender equality and empower women

4. To reduce child mortality

5. To improve maternal health

6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

7. To ensure environmental sustainability

8. To develop a global partnership for development

 

II. Headlines for the Future Writing Activity (10 min.)

To further reflect on the MDG in this activity, students will have the chance to envision if, in the future, the MDG are met and if they are not.

            Step One

Have students sit with a partner. Ask each pair of students to choose one MDG and write it down in their MVP Journals.

            Example:  To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

 

Step Two

Ask students to choose a place anywhere in the word and imagine it is New Years Day 2060. Have them write two headlines about the MDG. In the first headline the MDG they chose has been met, and in the second headline it has not been met.

 

Examples:

Headline One: The World Begins another New Year where Everyone has Food and Shelter.

 

Headline Two: Local Food Banks in New York City and Los Angeles run out of Food inciting Riots.

 

III. Review of the Millennium Villages Project goals (5 min.)

This discussion covers the critical connection between the Millennium Development Goals and the Millennium Villages Project. Go over the definition of the Millennium Villages Project and emphasize that it was created to support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

Millennium Villages Project: used an integrated approach to rural development in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, and addressed the root causes of extreme poverty, taking a community-led approach to sustainable development in villages in sub-Sahara Africa.

 

II.     Watch the film ‘Breaking the Poverty Trap’ (8:06 Min.)

Ask students not to take notes, but to watch, listen, and absorb the information and images from the film.

 

III. Film Discussion (10 min.)

Launch the discussion by asking students, “What does it mean that MVP took a community-led approach to sustainable development in villages?”

Target answer: To support the people of the village so they can help themselves

 

What are some examples of the community led approach to sustainable development in the village of Mayange?

Target answers:

            Training the doctors and nurses.

            Providing the mosquito nets for them to use and educate others.

            Building schools for them to educate children.

 

At one point, go to the MVP Glossary Board and define Sustainable Development with the class.

 

IV. Homework

Reflect on examples of projects that support others in order that they may then support themselves. Identify at least one example in your community.